What is Reprography?

Reprography is a form of reproduction, i.e. the duplication of a work.
Reprographic reproduction is a process that usually results in a copy on a graphic surface by for example the following processes:

> Printing
> Photocopying the reproduction of a work by digital means
> Scanning
> Digital copying for instance on CDs and DVDs
> Electronic storage in databases

What is printed material?

Fiction and non-fiction books, journals, periodicals, magazines, newspapers; works of visual art as well as photography and sheet music are considered as “printed material”.

How is copyright dealt with regarding reprographic reproductions?

Most printed material is protected by copyright. Copyright provides an exclusive right to authorise or prohibit reproduction. The rights holder can either exercise this right individually or collectively. Individual management of the exclusive right to reproduction is typical in publishing contracts while collective management occurs where individual management is impractical or impossible. In the print world this concerns reproduction by reprography (such as wide-scale photocopying by companies, educational establishments, libraries and so forth) and more and more often reproduction by digital uses. There are different legislative solutions and operational models for licensing and collecting remuneration for Reprography.

What are potential reprography licensees?

Enormous volumes of photocopies are taken every year in educational institutions, by governments and other public bodies, by industries and associations as well as private individuals. Mass uses of material protected by copyright should be subject to licensing and/or remuneration including but not limited to;

> Education at all levels
> Public administration – government, regional and local
> Trade and industry
> Public and research libraries
> Cultural institutions and other similar bodies
> Church administration
> Copy shops and other places where photocopying machines are open to the public

Copyright legislation in the country defines the possibilities for licensing; i.e., in countries where most photocopying takes place in copy-shops, it is important to ensure that legislation enables licensing in this sector. The exact type, scope and wording of a licence depends on the legislative framework of each country.

Who are potential Rights holders in Reprography?

In principle, all authors and publishers whose works can be copied benefit from collective management, and ideally should participate including but not limited to;

> Non-fiction authors, including authors of teaching material
> Fiction and drama writers
> Journalists
> Translators
> Visual artists: painters, sculptors, graphic designers and illustrators
> Photographers
> Composers and songwriters
> Publishers of:
> Books, journals, periodicals, magazines, newspapers and sheet music